Exploring The Debate Between Nature And Nurture: The Role Of Genetics In Who We Are
When it comes to human nature, The Blank Slate is a great way to get to the bottom of things.
In this book, author Steven Pinker dives deep into the world of behavioral genetics and takes a hard look at the evidence supporting the fact that much of our personalities and behaviors come from our genetics – from political beliefs to even violent tendencies.
This goes against the popular theories from earlier centuries which argued that we were all born with blank slates, harmless and equal with no built-in predisposition for any particular trait or behavior pattern.
This book carefully reviews what evidence does exist for these theories, coming up empty each time.
By reading this book, you’ll be able to find out what lies underneath human nature by learning about why genetics has become such a polarizing issue politically and religion-wise; how twin studies can shed so much insight on these matters; and how we can ultimately come to terms with the imperfections within us.
Exploring Theories Of Human Nature: An Overview Of The Blank Slate, Noble Savage And Ghost In The Machine Concepts
Throughout the years, there have been three popular theories about human nature that have been used to try and understand people’s behavior.
These theories were the Blank Slate, Noble Savage and Ghost in the Machine.
Although these beliefs were widely accepted for a long time, they have been proven wrong in recent years.
The first theory is known as the Blank Slate Theory and was famously attributed to seventeenth-century philosopher John Locke.
This idea suggests that humans are born without any inherent nature, and all of their characteristics come from outside influences such as education or culture.
This theory also emphasizes the role of social influences in forming our thoughts, feelings, behaviors and customs.
The second popular belief is known as the Noble Savage theory, which originated from eighteenth-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
He believed that humans had an innate selflessness and peacefulness that got corrupted by modern societies promoting greed and violence.
Finally, the third idea was called the Ghost in the Machine Theory which René Descartes developed back in the seventeenth century.
This concept postulated that humans have two distinct components: a physical body and an indivisible metaphysical mind.
People who adhered to this thought assumed that it was impossible to explain complex elements of thought with simple mechanical terms since this type of comprehension seemed beyond our knowledge at the time.
Nowadays, many of these ideas have been disproven or replaced by more evidence-backed models of understanding human behavior during psychological research studies; however, these three theories remain iconic because they helped us open up conversations about how society shapes our view of ourselves throughout history.
The Failure Of The Blank Slate Theory: Cultural Behavior Is Part Of Our Evolving Genetics
We now know that cultural behaviors can be the result of evolution and genetics.
The Blank Slate theory, popular for much of the 20th century, suggested otherwise, claiming humans had no predisposition to certain behaviors, such as racism and sexism.
However, we now understand that these behavior are in fact innate to us and are part of our evolutionary development.
This means that while some forms of cultural behavior may appear arbitrary (such as driving on a particular side), there is an underlying reason behind it.
In driving, it’s in everyone’s interest to act in a coordinated fashion, which points towards cultures being a collection of practices and conventions designed to instill coordination.
Moreover, we have seen examples where a child is born with something other than just a blank slate.
For instance in regards to language: children demonstrate an innate mental inclination for forming meaning from words they’ve heard – something that parrots cannot do.
This indicates that beyond environment conditions, genetic disposition plays a role in our behaviors too.
The Tearing Down Of The Great Wall Between The Mind And The Physical: Cognitive Science, Behavioral Genetics And What They Mean For Our Understanding Of Life’S Mysteries
Modern science has found that there is indeed a connection between the physical world and the mind.
Through the fields of cognitive science and behavioral genetics, scientists are unlocking new insights about how our minds work.
Cognitive science focuses on the study of the mind, with an understanding that it can never truly be a blank slate since this would imply that it does nothing when we are born.
Rather, everyone is given certain knowledge and skills at birth, which are then shaped by their environment and experiences.
Meanwhile, behavioral genetics seeks to understand how genetic makeup impacts our personalities and behavior.
Studies have shown, for instance, that even identical twins raised in different homes will still be introverted or polite in much the same way due to shared genes.
This evidence challenges the idea of a “noble savage” as well as ghost in the machine theories since it proves that our personality traits don’t just emerge from environmental influences but also genetic influences.
All of this demonstrates that there really is a bridge between the physical world and our minds – one backed up by modern scientific research.
Despite Several Attempts, The Blank Slate Theory Still Fails To Explain Human Complexity
The Blank Slate theory has been debunked time and time again, but there are still those clinging to it, ready to fight any scientific advancement that disproves their view.
Towards that end, they have developed a few defenses to try and prove the validity of the Blank Slate theory.
But although these defenses may seem convincing at first glance, they ultimately fail when put under scrutiny.
First is the so-called connectionism defense.
This suggests that neural pathways and computer models are similar enough that we can be seen as simply machines with no predetermined destiny.
However, Artificial Intelligence research has shown us that this idea is seriously flawed – humans have an intuitive ability to understand more abstract concepts than any machine currently is capable of.
The second defense revolves around neural plasticity – how the brain changes form over a lifetime in accordance with our experiences and individual habits.
Certain skills can cause parts of the cortex related to those skills to become more developed than usual – for example, a professional violinist will have larger areas dedicated to controlling their left hand movements than someone who does not play violin.
Still, this does not mean we can theoretically will behaviors into existence – LGBT people cannot train themselves out of being gay or bisexual by learning new skills related to different sexualities.
The Blank Slate theory was attractive because it gave everyone a blank slate metaphorically speaking; in reality though, our paths are determined by far more complex means than just learned behavior or environmental experience.
So no matter how many defenses its supporters come up with, the theory will always remain just what it is – an outdated relic of an earlier scientific era that’s no longer relevant in light of recent discoveries surrounding genetics and predisposition towards certain traits and conditions.
The Blank Slate Theory And Its Political Opposition
It’s no secret that one of the main reasons the blank slate theory has been so popular is because it implies that everyone is truly born equal.
So when evidence surfaced that there were biological differences among humans, it was quickly met with political opposition from both sides.
The defenders of this theory came from the left and invoked Marxist theory, claiming any research into disproving the Blank Slate Theory had ulterior motives.
This group also labeled evidence of genetics playing a role in shaping human brains “determinism” and “reductionism.”
On the other hand, religious groups like Christian fundamentalists saw the Ghost in Machine Theory as promoting their own religious beliefs -that the soul can exist independently from our physical bodies after death.
These groups found great support amongst those on the political right as they attempted to defend this idea.
All in all, many of these defenses for the Blank Slate Theory are based heavily on politics and religion rather than scientific facts or research.
Abandoning The Blank Slate: The Uncomfortable Realities And Responsibilities Of An Imperfect Nature
Abandoning the notion of the blank slate can leave us to confront the reality of a situation, which is not always comfortable.
People wanted the comfortable vision of equality promised by the Blank Slate theory in order to come to terms with centuries of slavery and the horrors of the Holocaust still fresh in minds around the world.
But instead, we have to accept that people are innately different from one another – and this comes with many fears relating to potential inequality and perfectibility.
For instance, some worry about Social Darwinism, or using genetic differences among sexual, racial and genetic groups as evidence for social discrimination or suggesting some are inferiority.
It’s worth noting though, just because there are these small genetic differences doesn’t mean society must opt for Social Darwinism – it’s more complicated than that!
Factors other than genetics can influence a person’ social status, and even if born with genetic disadvantage(s), it is a just society’s responsibility to offer assistance rather than discrimination.
Additionally, abandoning the blank slate brings up worries related to imperfectibility -what if humans are born with an inclination toward selfish acts? It’s here we must remember our values hinge on one’s right to control their own body being held as more important that someone’s desires- so natural or not, certain behavior cannot be allowed.
How Understanding Human Nature Does Not Interfere With Morality And Meaning
When the Blank Slate theory was abandoned, it gave way to a set of fears: determinism and nihilism.
The fear of determinism raised the question of how much accountability we can put on someone if their behavior is predetermined by their genetics.
This has led to many debates about whether or not we’re going to be “doomed” to be like our parents, if law and morality become obsolete, and so on.
The other worry – nihilism – stems from the idea that our inherited genes are responsible for so much and that we are merely machines designed to pass on these genes then next generations.
This kind of outlook doesn’t really leave much room for finding higher meaning in life.
However, neither of these fears need take hold just because we have greater knowledge about why certain behaviors occur.
This doesn’t have to stand in the way of understanding what’s right and wrong and seeking out a greater sense of satisfaction in life.
Abandoning the blank slate means leaving behind theories that oversimplify complex human behavior, but it also allows us to focus on living a more meaningful existence.
The Human Brain: Constructing Reality To Ensure Survival And Understanding Our Limitations
The human brain is remarkable for its complexity, but it has a purpose – and one of its primary functions is to process the world around us in order to give humanity the best chance of survival.
How does it manage that? By constructing reality for us, by putting things into categories.
And while this can be useful in some cases, such as when we need to make snap judgements or recognize patterns quickly, it also can lead us into dangerous territory, such as when it comes to racism and sexism.
Our minds are designed to quickly categorize people and events – and this makes us susceptible to falling into stereotypes.
For example, it’s easy for the brain to instantly agree with the sentiment that all arts students are more liberal than business majors – without any supporting facts.
This creates a stereotype which isn’t necessarily supported by hard data, yet we continue to believe it because our brains instinctively categorize information in order to quickly process what’s going on around us.
Of course, some stereotypes are backed up by facts and statistics, but others are simply a result of our brains trying their hardest at categorizing people and situations.
These quick categorizations become even more dangerous when they result in racism or sexism; an even bigger problem occurs when instead of addressing these issues head-on and challenging biased ideas, we just accept them as part of everyday life because our brains have categorized them as reality.
Our minds may be excellent at processing concrete information about the world around us, but sadly they lack the same skillset when dealing with abstract concepts such as modern physics or mathematics – so education has been developed precisely to bridge this gap between instinctive understanding and scientific fact.
Humans Are Not As Simple As We Might Think: Our Social Needs And Desires Are Shaped By Our Evolutionary Past And Imperfect Moral Sense
Genetics have a major impact on our strongest desires to help those around us.
We are biologically programmed with an impulse to assist the ones closest to us for increased chances of survival.
This explains why there is such an emphasis on kinship and helping family before anyone else.
At the same time, however, our moral emotions may not always be based in facts or reason.
We may have opppositions against someone’s actions, despite knowing that no one is being hurt by them.
We can see this in the example of a family who’s dog was killed by a car, deciding to clean and prepare it for dinner: most would judge their behavior as wrong without being able to explain why.
This goes to show that often times our judgement isn’t based on harm, but rather instinctual moral feelings, which can be irrational.
Is Violence Part Of Human Nature Or Are We All Products Of Our Environment?
It is clear that our beliefs and inclinations are not only a result of our environment, but can also be traced to genetics.
Studies have shown how identical twins who were separated at birth tend to share the same political views with an average correlation score of 0.62.
In addition, research has consistently shown that violent tendencies are more likely inherited than caused by external conditions.
US crime rate statistics over the past 50 years show significant fluctuations, which may suggest a biological explanation for violence and aggression despite the influence of social conditions such as poverty or discrimination.
In fact, even toddlers display aggressive behaviour before they have had direct experience with conflict – further reinforcing the idea that some behaviours may be heavily influenced by heredity rather than learnt from culture or society.
It is unreasonable to dismiss the possibility that violent tendencies and political preferences are a mixture of both genetic inheritance and environmental factors.
How Freethinking Feminism Can Acknowledge The Mind’S Biological Differences Without Taking Sides
The Blank Slate: The Modern Understanding of Human Nature has a powerful message – that the minds of women and men are not the same, but this should not stand in the way of feminism.
In modern society, women have greatly progressed towards achieving their rights and goals, thanks to the efforts of the women’s liberation movement and feminism.
But while progress has been made, gender inequality still exists in America in terms of condescension, discrimination and sexual harassment.
Research shows us that men’s brains tend to be more suited for certain activities to do with risk-taking and knowledge of three-dimensional objects; whereas women are better at things such as spelling, matching shapes and reading facial expressions.
This does not mean one is superior than the other – both genders generally display equal levels of intelligence, however there are different cognitive capacities that come down to brain structure itself.
Regardless of these differences, knowing about them can help us gain a better idea on what else might be causing any gender pay gap apart from discrimination – we may find out it stems from jobs requiring skills better suited to males or vice versa for females.
Overall, this information allows us to recognize that both sexes have different minds but does not have to distract from our view of feminism and its overall success for rising against injustice for all genders.
The Blank Slate Theory
The three laws of behavioral genetics developed by psychologist Eric Turkheimer in 2000 prove that human nature is the result of a variety of influences, including genes, parenting and unique environment.
The first law states that “all human behavioral traits are heritable,” meaning that there are certain behaviors and traits that can be passed down from generation to generation through genes.
This includes things like language proficiency, religious beliefs, political views and many more.
The second law further supports this idea by stating that the influence from shared environments like family is surprisingly small when compared to the influence from genes.
Even if two siblings are raised under the same roof from day one, the adopted child will still turn out differently due to their genetic differences.
Finally, the third law states that a sizable portion of complexity in human behavior (upwards of 50 percent) cannot be attributed solely to genes and families, but also has to do with unique environment such as neighborhoods or social groups.
Together these three laws form a strong foundation for understanding how our environment affects our behavior and personality.
The Decline Of Tradition In Art Is Not A Sign That Art Is Disappearing, But Rather It Reflects Our Evolving Sense Of Beauty
It’s no wonder that the arts have been around for so long – research suggests that it is due largely to our genetic drives.
It’s in our nature to create art, though what kind of art we produce may differ from culture to culture.
Our quest for aesthetic pleasure likely comes from a desire to mate, with creativity being seen as a sign of intelligence and the quality of one’s genes.
Lately however, traditional images of beauty seem to have gone out of fashion.
Modern and postmodern art has taken cues away from panoramic landscapes and classic conceptions of beauty and traded them in favor of more abstract works.
Music has also shifted away from conventional rhythms and towards dissonance and atonal compositions.
That could explain why some people might think that the arts are dying off – they’re looking for traditional sources of beauty, which is sadly lacking in postmodern art.
Evidence suggests that our sense of beauty is an evolutionary adaptation, just like the rest of our senses and part of who we are as human beings.
So it makes sense too why those complaining about less art are really saying that there’s less traditional pieces being made.
But despite this apparent shift away from traditional beauty in modern arts, overall it looks like our passion for art production isn’t waning at all and if anything has only been growing together with the world’s population over time – making sure the future generations sustain this beautiful lifeline we inherited!
The Blank Slate, by Steven Pinker, is an insightful look at the complex structure of the human mind.
Its key message is that our minds are far from a blank slate; rather, they come with a built-in structure that helps us understand and interact with the world and gives us instincts to survive and flourish.
Furthermore, we are not born as ‘noble savages’ who are corrupted by modern society but instead possess innate constraints on our behavior that shape and guide us throughout life.
Ultimately, this book offers readers a profound understanding of how the human mind works and why we behave the way we do.