Exploring The Paradox Of Individuality Vs. Conformity: An Overview Of Elias Canetti’S Crowds And Power
Elias Canetti’s Crowds and Power provides readers with a fascinating look at the conundrum of crowds and power.
From prehistoric packs of hunter-gatherers to contemporary nations, Canetti turns a discerning eye to the push and pull between individual identity and our tendency to seek solace in crowds.
He examines how command-giving evolved from a threat of death into an incentive, why nation-states rely on symbols to create cohesion, and other topics that help explain why we as individually unique humans are so often drawn in by the power of the multitude.
The book is a lucid take on this complex topic, drawing on both ancient history and modern times for an insightful understanding of how crowds gain power and wield it over individuals and societies alike.
If you’re looking for deeper insight into why human behavior follows certain patterns when we come together as one, then Crowds and Power is definitely worth checking out.
It Takes A Crowd To Form A Crowd: Analyzing The Five Types Of Group Dynamics
When looking at crowds, it’s important to note that there are five different kinds of crowd that can be distinguished by their different emotional character.
Most notably, there is the baiting crowd which has an objective to kill and a flight crowd which is united in response to a common threat.
In addition, there’s a prohibition crowd that exists to refuse something, a reversal crowd that seeks to overturn power hierarchies, and finally a feast crowd which engages in common indulgence.
But despite these differences, all crowds share some common features; they tend to grow larger as people join them, they operate on the principle of equality where every member carries the same standing regardless of past differences, they are usually very dense as bodies press up against one another with no dividers between them and ultimately each has an objective or goal to focus on.
When the target of this goal is achieved the members go back to their individual lives.
The Evolution Of Packs To Crowds: From Hunting To Mourning To Growing
The crowd as we know it has its origins in the “pack,” a primitive form of human association traceable all the way back to our ancestors’ nomadic existence.
Packs differ from crowds in that they are isolated groups surrounded by wilderness and can’t increase in size – so the concept of growth is absent.
But there are four different types of pack that we should be aware of.
The first is the hunting pack, which is formed with the purpose of taking down an animal too large for any individual to take on alone.
Then there’s the war pack, similar in structure to a hunting pack but used to attack other humans and packs instead of animals.
Thirdly, there’s a lamenting pack which forms when someone dies and is issued last rites meant to protect their soul; this serves to maintain group unity despite loss of life.
Finally, there’s the increase pack – this one seeks out growth, and marks the origin point of what would eventually become the notion of “crowds.” Of course, this idea relies on a much more denser population or connected world than was present during a period where packs were most common place.
Religion: A Reflection Of Primal Pack And Crowd Behaviors
The rituals of Christianity and Shia Islam both reflect origins in a lamenting pack dynamic.
In Islam, for instance, devoted Muslims gather for prayer five times a day as part of small prayer packs.
But on Fridays, these packs merge into quite large crowds which also play a major role in hajj – the great pilgrimage to Mecca.
At this sacred site, the crowd stands united in its goal and all become equal.
But when it comes to showing links between packs and religion, it is the Shia branch of Islam that provides the most interesting example because they put the suffering of their third Imam at the center of their faith.
The third Imam was Hussein, who fought against Khalif’s troops during a battle in Damascus.
His death is still mourned today by Shiites with laments that remain an important part of their religious practice.
Christianity also follows this model with Jesus Christ being seen as a savior by Christians who often observe rites and rituals related to his death in order to remember his sacrifice.
Lamenting packs gathered beneath his cross and at his grave have come to symbolize their faith in him as a symbol of devotion and love towards him.
The Power Of Crowd Symbols: How Nationalism Finds Expression Through Collective Imagination
Nations are powerful entities that people relate to through the crowd’s symbols.
Whether it be a literal group of people, like a nation’s citizens, or a perceived crowd such as those who identify with a nation, symbols become key in the way people interact with this collective.
For example, the English identify their country with the sea while Germans have an affinity for woodlands, which explains their popular symbol of marching forests.
The French have revolution as their symbol and Dutch pride themselves on their dikes, whereas the Spanish recognize matadors as one of their nation’s symbols.
Interestingly enough, Jews find strength within the Exodus from Egypt when connecting to their nation.
This story provides them with common purpose and allows them to unite over experiencing exile and looking for the promised land together.
All these nation-specific crowd symbols demonstrate how powerfully symbolic crowds can be in inspiring fanatical belief in one’s own greatness and superiority despite individuals being part of a much larger unit.
Power Lies In Seizing, Jabbing And Eating: The Symbolic Origins Of Power
When it comes to power, we need to look beyond the physical force that acts in the here and now.
Power is the extension of force through space and time, and its origins can be traced back to three primary acts: seizing, killing, and eating.
All of these are symbolized by various parts of the body – namely hands, fingers, and mouth.
Seizing is a powerful act which is associated with the hand’s tight grip on an object- this activity is heavily associated with large felines like tigers and lions as they have muscular paws symbols of strength.
The fingers can come next as they have pointed tips that resemble stabbing motions when pointed – this signifies the power of being able to kill or threaten.
And finally there is the use of one’s mouth and teeth for eating- this incorporates whatever is eaten into oneself where it can then be absorbed- again emphasizing powerful overtones since food is often product of other animals killed for our gain.
It’s not just possession or devouring massive amounts of food that reflects power however; there’s also a sense of championship for those who are seen as apex eaters in their group who go on to lead or serve as a symbol for strength as well.
Survival As Symbol: How Near-Death Experiences Have Been Tied To Power Through The Ages
Surviving difficult situations is often seen as a symbol of power.
It can give the survivor a sense of dignity and invincibility, since they have outlived those around them.
This concept is inextricably linked to power in several ways.
For example, paranoid rulers often use bloody executions to protect their positions – after all, they are still alive and stand above the dead.
In some ancient cultures and tribes, warriors believed that they inherited their opponent’s supernatural “mana” when they killed them in battle – this only increased their own powers even further.
Similarly, many tribe’s origin myths include tales of disasters with only a handful of survivors living on.
Take ancient Polynesians or North American Kutenai tribes, who both have stories of epidemics that wiped out most of the population save for three survivors – who went on to found the respective tribe.
These tales demonstrate that humans have long understood survival as a sign of power.
With this in mind, it’s no surprise that those that survive are often seen as powerful simply because their survival is interpreted as an act of strength itself.
The Power Of Force And Manipulation: How Symbols Are Used To Represent Power
Symbols of power, as well as hiding one’s true thoughts, are essential for effectively maintaining power.
Many cultures have used symbols like rapidly moving creatures—such as lions, leopards and eagles—to signify power.
In Egypt, the falcon-headed god Horus was a symbol of strength and power.
Roman emperors had their souls ascend to heaven in the form of an eagle.
The Greeks used lightning bolts to represent Zeus’ swiftness and strength.
In addition to physical force, power also requires manipulation – both verbal and mental.
Pros such as mastering questioning and investigation or having the ability to conceal one’s true motives can induce submission by overwhelming someone with questions just like Socrates did in his dialogues without having to use physical force.
Staying silent has become an armor to effectively protect one against these kinds of interrogations, making secrecy an important factor in wielding power.
Just like a cat will stealthily lie in wait before pouncing on its prey, those possessing power must hide their intentions from others around them if they want to sustain it.
The Power Of Commands: From Death Threats To Inducements In Social Life
It’s no surprise that commands have always been seen as expressions of power, from the moment we first experience them.
When you look more closely, you can trace their origin back to a single threat: death.
The first command was the ‘flight command’ – think of it like a lion roaring at its prey – and it uses the power of death to make sure its orders are followed without question.
But over time, this primal form of command-giving has been modified or ‘domesticated’.
We no longer rely on the threat of death to make people obey our commands; instead, we use bribery – offering rewards such as food in return for obedience.
This is especially evident when looking at a child-parent or animal-owner relationship; obedience is expected but enforced through rewards rather than punishment.
This process has been less successful in certain areas like military forces, where strict chains of command remain essential for success.
In these cases, old-school commands still apply: there can be no room for doubt or disobedience when lives are on the line.
It’s here where we see more clearly why commands will always be connected to power: those below must obey unquestioningly those from above if order is to be maintained
Transformation: The Primal Power Struggle In Nature And Society
Southern African bushmen have long known that transformation is a key component of power.
The ancient Georgian fairytale The Master and His Apprentice illustrates this point well, as the apprentice boy uses transformations to escape his tyrannical master.
Just like in nature, animals cannot always escape predators and must rely on transformation by playing dead in an effort to survive.
Humans also use transformation to gain the upper hand over their enemies – sometimes relying on disguises or masks to trick them into believing they are friendly.
This kind of subterfuge is at the heart of all despotic governments, where masked rebels may lurk amongst those who appear loyal.
The Bushmen of southern Africa understand this phenomenon better than most.
Reports from their societies suggest an incredible sensitivity to the wider world, even being able to sense events in far away places as if it was happening to them directly.
Some southern-African bushmen can supposedly even detect wounds inflicted on those around them, and even some say they can feel the weight of children their wives are carrying!
The Language Of Posture: How Standing, Sitting And Lying Down Reflect Power And Status
Rank, posture and the regulation of time are all connected to power.
From the way you sit or stand, to how you regulate the passage of time – both of these can tell us a lot about someone’s authority among their peers.
The way someone carries themselves can help determine how much status they have in a group setting.
If they are sitting while everyone else is standing, it’s a clear indicator that they have more power than those around them.
This is why sitting has traditionally been associated with high-ranking figures, such as kings and emperors on their thrones.
On the other hand, if someone kneels before another person, then it’s indicative of their weakness and that they are petitioning for something.
Time is also closely linked to power – those who have the power also have control over time in some form or another.
For example, Julius Caesar established the Julian calendar & had July named after himself – a feat which was later repeated by Emperor Augustus.
Hitler attempted to create what he called his ‘thousand-year Reich’.
These acts were meant to immortalise their legacy & signify that their power would last for eternity.
Clearly, rank, posture and the regulation of time all reflect the amount of authority someone has amongst their peers, showing just how important these elements are when it comes to conveying power dynamics in society.
Crowds and Power is an important book that provides insight into understanding human history.
Its main focus is on analyzing the crowds that humans have joined throughout their history and the power dynamics within them.
Whether it be prehistoric hunting packs, mass religions, or nation-states, these crowds help shape individuals and determine their experience of the world.
Power has always been a part of these groups, ranging from overt threats and domination to more subtle ways of controlling behavior.
In conclusion, Crowds and Power attempts to explain how we are all connected by our shared membership in large groups which wield considerable power over each other.